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Travel - April 18, 2021

All Concerning the Latin Language



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“E Pluribus Unum”, “Habeus Corpus”, “Carpe Diem”, “Caveat Emptor”.

All of those phrases are identified by most individuals, but they arrive from a language that has been useless for 1500 years: Latin.

Latin is on our cash, serves as mottos for universities, and is the

basis for our complete naming system in biology. Many ideas from legislation and logic are all described by Latin phrases. 

Study extra about Lingua Latina, the Latin Language, and the way it’s nonetheless utilized in our world immediately on this episode of Totum Ubique Cotidie.

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The Latin language was certainly one of a number of Italic languages which arose on the Italian Peninsula. The identify Latin comes from the Latini tribe which existed round modern-day Rome about 3000 years in the past. That space was referred to as Latium. 

Nobody is aware of precisely how or when the folks we name Romans started talking Latin. 

As with different languages, Latin developed over time. 

The language spoken throughout the founding of town is called Previous Latin, and right here I’ll reference my episode explaining the historical past of Rome within the Kingdom, Republic, and Imperial durations. 

The event of the language was comparable in how English and French each had Previous English and Previous French has progenitor languages. 

By the point of the start of Julius Caesar, the language had developed into what we name Classical Latin. Nearly all the surviving literature we now have from historic Rome comes from the classical Latin interval which lasted till the third century. 

This was the interval that gave us Caesar’s Commentaries, the works of Cicero, Livy, Catullus, Seneca, and lots of others. These classical Latin works have been the premise of classical Latin scholarship for hundreds of years. 

At present, Latin mainly synonymous with classical Latin. 

Classical Latin was a really exact, rules-based language. It was spoken by the the Aristocracy and it was the shape taught in colleges.

Nevertheless, it was not the identical as what was spoken within the streets. This spoken Latin was given the label within the 18th century as Vulgar Latin. The time period vulgar doesn’t have the identical connotation that we now have immediately. It didn’t imply it was potty-mouthed, simply that it was the language of the frequent folks. 

Over time, because the empire fell and completely different elements of the empire grew to become separated, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages we all know immediately. 

The Slavic invasion of the Balkans reduce off the Latin audio system within the east from the remainder of the Latin-speaking areas, and that developed into Romanian. 

Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Catalan are all offshoots of Vulgar Latin as are different smaller Romance languages together with Sardinian, Occitan, and Romansh. There have been different Romance languages which have subsequently turn into extinct, similar to Dalmatian. 

Of the present languages which exist, the one which is taken into account to be closest to Latin is Sardinian and presumably Romanian, relying on the way you take a look at it.

The language which has moved the furthest away from Latin is certainly French. 

Nevertheless, all the present Romance languages have extra in frequent with one another than they do with Classical Latin. 

So, what precisely makes Latin so completely different from different languages. 

Properly, there are a complete bunch of issues.

For starters, there are not any articles in Latin. There isn’t a equal of “the” or “a” that you simply put earlier than nouns. The one manner you may inform if somebody is referring to “a horse” or “the horse”, for instance, is context. 

The truth that each Romance language has articles signifies that this was a improvement of vulgar Latin, and it unfold from there. 

Likewise, there are not any simple phrases in Latin for Sure or No.

The phrase “ita” would generally be used as a kind of “sure”, however it actually interprets extra to “it’s so”. Likewise, the phrase “sic” which suggests “thus”, grew to become the premise of the phrase “sure” in Spanish and Italian, which is “si”. 

To say one thing like “no”, you would use “Minim?” which suggests “by no means”, or “noli” which suggests “don’t” and later grew to become the premise of the phrase “no”. 

The actual factor about Latin, and the issue it has given college students of the language for hundreds of years, is that it’s what known as a extremely inflected language. By comparability, English is a barely inflected language. 

Which means that the entire key to studying Latin has to do with phrase endings. Phrase endings imply every little thing, and a phrase’s perform in a sentence will rely on the ending which is used.

That is true of each nouns and verbs. 

Take the case of the verb to like, which is usually given as the instance verb in Latin. 

In English, the phrase love principally stays the identical no matter the way it’s used.

For instance, I like, you’re keen on, he/she/it loves, we love, you plural love, they usually love. The one time we modify the phrase is for the third particular person singular after we add an “s”. 

In Latin, it’s rather more complicated.

I like is amo

You’re keen on is amas 

He/she/it loves is amat

We love is amamus

You all love is amatis

They love is amant

These are simply the six mostly use endings. It will get far more sophisticated relying on whether it is lively or passive, subjunctive or indicative, current, future, excellent, imperfect, pluperfect, or crucial. 

That’s the reason translating Latin isn’t simply so simple as discovering a phrase in a dictionary and plugging in regardless of the Latin equal is. 

Likewise, nouns have many various endings as properly. A noun could have a distinct ending relying on if it’s the topic of the sentence, the item, oblique object, possessive, or the item of a preposition. 

In consequence, phrase order doesn’t actually matter a lot in Latin because it does in different languages.

For instance, if I mentioned “The boy noticed the woman”, it has a very completely different that means than the sentence, “the woman noticed the boy”. I modified the that means of the sentence by altering the order of the phrases.

In Latin, that doesn’t work. Lady and boy would have endings that point out if they’re the item or the topic, so in case you swap the phrases round, the that means doesn’t change.

To alter the that means, on this instance, you would need to change the ending of the phrase for each woman and boy to alter the sentence, not the phrase order. 

That being mentioned, Latin does have a phrase order which is utilized by conference. It isn’t used 100% of the time, however it’s used more often than not.

In English, our phrase order is subject-verb-object.  The boy noticed the woman. 

In Latin, the phrase order is normally subject-object-verb. 

This may usually be irritating as a result of you haven’t any clue what is going on in a sentence till the very finish. 

There’s an outdated joke {that a} senator got here to the discussion board after Cicero had been talking for 2 hours. The senator requested the one subsequent to him what Cicero was speaking about. The opposite senator replied I don’t know. He hasn’t gotten to the verb but. 

So, OK, Latin is completely different. No shock there. Why does it nonetheless discover itself in use in sure corners of our tradition? 

Properly, after the empire fell and the assorted areas began to develop their very own languages, Latin remained in use amongst the educated, particularly amongst the clergy. 

The catholic church used Latin as their liturgical language, so clergymen and monks needed to be taught Latin. Throughout the center ages, that is the place most scholarship was carried out, so Latin was the pure language.

Within the 4th century, St. Jerome wrote the Vulgate, which was a translation of the bible in Latin, and that grew to become the model of the bible which was used for over 1000 years in most of Western Europe.

It additionally served as a common language in Europe as everybody started to talk completely different tongues. 

Ultimately, Latin grew to become the premise of getting an schooling. It was the first topic for any educated particular person. Being literate mainly meant realizing Latin. 

Additionally, as nobody spoke Latin natively anymore, nobody had the good thing about having their native language used because the common language. It was like impartial floor.

A lot of a very powerful doc written in Europe after the autumn of the Roman Empire was written in Latin.

Saint Augustine’s Confessions and The Metropolis of God

Luther’s 95 Theses

Newton’s Principia Mathematica

René Descartes Principals of Philosophy

The mathematical works of Euler and Gauss

Carl Linnaeus developed the fashionable system of organic taxonomy and developed the binomial nomenclature, the place every species is given two Latin names. 

The truth is, it has been estimated that of all the unique works written in Latin, solely about one-half of 1 p.c was written throughout the classical interval in Rome. Every little thing else was written after the empire had fallen. 

Over time, the pronunciation of Latin modified. The letter C grew to become tender as an alternative of laborious. Similar with the letter G. V modified from being pronounced like a W. 

This new pronunciation was known as ecclesiastical Latin.

For instance, in classical Latin, Caesar was pronounced kai-zar. Cicero was pronounced kikero.  Caesar’s well-known quote veni vidi vici was initially pronounced wini widi wiki. 

A motion to return again to the classical pronunciation started with Erasmus within the fifteenth century. Most Latin scholarship these days will use this revived classical pronunciation. 

Using Latin declined within the 18th century because it was changed by French because the common language in Europe for diplomacy and science. It was rendered principally as a language for classical students and for the Catholic liturgy. 

With the reforms of Vatican II within the Sixties, the Catholic Church eliminated Latin as a compulsory language and the mass moved virtually completely to the native vernacular. 

Latin most likely reached its all-time low within the 70s and 80s as there was actually no use for the language anymore, exterior of the Latin Letters workplace on the Vatican.

Lately, there was a little bit of a mini-revival in Latin because of the web. Audio system which might in any other case not be capable of contact one another now can achieve this on-line.

In Europe, they’ve used Latin for a few of their establishments, as a impartial floor between the nations. 

A residing Latin motion has began for folks to talk Latin in an immersive atmosphere. There are immersion camps and conferences for Latin audio system. 

There are Latin-speaking YouTube channels and podcasts. 

The latest Netflix sequence Barbarian has all the Roman characters talking a reasonably good classical Latin. 

Duolingo, the language studying web site, has even come out with a Latin course, which is accessible at no cost.

So, Latin, though nobody has actually spoken it as a primary language for 1500 years, has by no means actually died, though it’s thought of a useless language. Crumbs of it may be discovered within the Romance languages spoken all around the world, within the phrases in sayings we nonetheless have, and in scientific and authorized terminology.



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